Toxicological profiles - N-hexane
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High concentrations can also cause CNS depression. At very high concentrations, hexane can cause death from asphyxiation as it displaces oxygen. Chronic inhalation can cause a peripheral neuropathy characterized by pain, weakness, loss of sensation, impaired gait, myalgias, muscle atrophy, hyporeflexia, and sometimes visual disturbances.
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Other than decreased weight gain in the offspring, negative results were obtained for teratogenicity. Fetotoxicity was found in rats and mice. An increase in fertility index and a decrease in resorptions was noted in mice, but mating, fertility, litter size, and postnatal survival were not affected in rats. Hexane induced sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary cells. A Monitor vital signs and mental status. B Monitor pulse oximetry and arterial blood gases and obtain a chest radiograph in any patient with cough, respiratory distress, or irritation.
C Obtain serum electrolytes, renal function, and liver enzymes in patients with more than mild symptoms. D Obtain electromyogram and nerve conduction studies in patients with evidence of peripheral neuropathy. Administer oxygen for respiratory irritation. Treat vomiting with antiemetics and IV fluids. Monitor mental status. Monitor for respiratory distress. If cough or difficulty breathing develops, evaluate for respiratory tract irritation, bronchitis, or pneumonitis.
Administer oxygen and assist ventilation as required. Treat bronchospasm with inhaled beta2-agonist and oral or parenteral corticosteroids. If irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or photophobia persist, perform a slit lamp exam. Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity: There is no human information available. Fetotoxicity has been observed in the presence of maternal toxicity.
Reproductive Toxicity: There is no human information available. Mutagenicity: The available information does not suggest that n-hexane is mutagenic. Negative results were obtained in most tests using live animals and relevant routes of exposure. Positive results chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow were observed in male rats exposed by inhalation, but the purity of the sample was not specified. No human information was located. Negative results were obtained in cultured human cells DNA damage, unscheduled DNA synthesis , with or without metabolic activation.
Toxicologically Synergistic Materials: The neurotoxic effects of n-hexane vapour can be enhanced in rats by both methyl ethyl ketone MEK and lead acetate, but are decreased by toluene. Both toluene and xylene prevent testicular atrophy by n-hexane. Potential for Accumulation: n-Hexane is mainly absorbed through the lungs. Animal studies indicate that skin absorption is low. However, skin absorption may be increased by exposure to other solvents at the same time. Elimination of n-hexane from rat blood and brain, the sciatic nerve, liver and fetal tissue was rapid, but was slower from the kidneys.
The composition of metabolites varies from one species to another. Ensure your own safety before attempting rescue e. Remove source of contamination and move victim to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, trained personnel should administer oxygen. If breathing has stopped, trained personnel should immediately begin artificial respiration AR or, if the heart has stopped, cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPR or automated external defibrillation.
Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility. Skin Contact: As quickly as possible, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods e. Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Wash gently and thoroughly with lukewarm, gently flowing water and non-abrasive soap for 5 minutes. Obtain medical advice. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.
Eye Contact: Quickly and gently blot chemical off the face. Immediately flush the contaminated eye s with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes, while holding the eyelid s open. Ingestion: NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim lean forward to reduce risk of aspiration. Have victim rinse mouth with water again. Immediately obtain medical attention.
First Aid Comments: Provide general supportive measures comfort, warmth, rest.
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Some first aid procedures recommended above require advanced first aid training. Protocols for undertaking advanced procedures must be developed in consultation with a doctor and routinely reviewed. All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace. Note to Physicians: Long-term exposure may cause damage to the nervous system of the extremities the hands, arms, legs and feet. Autoignition Ignition Temperature: deg C deg F 1,33, Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact: Probably not sensitive.
Stable material. Vapour in the flammable range can be ignited readily by static discharge of sufficient energy. Minimum ignition energy: 0. Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products: Toxic, irritating chemicals. Fire Hazard Summary: Extremely flammable liquid. Material will readily ignite at room temperature. Vapour is heavier than air and can travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back to a leak or open container.
Can accumulate in confined spaces, resulting in a toxicity and flammability hazard. Closed containers may rupture violently and suddenly release large amounts of product when exposed to fire or excessive heat for a sufficient period of time. Extinguishing Media: Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, alcohol foam and polymer foam. Fire fighting foams are the extinguishing agent of choice for most flammable liquid fires. Fire Fighting Instructions: Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or protected location.
Approach fire from upwind to avoid toxic decomposition products. Stop leak before attempting to stop the fire. If the leak cannot be stopped, and if there is no risk to the surrounding area, let the fire burn itself out. If the flames are extinguished without stopping the leak, vapours could form explosive mixtures with air and reignite. Water can extinguish the fire if used under favourable conditions and when hose streams are applied by experienced firefighters trained in fighting all types of flammable liquid fires.
If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of hose streams and this should begin as soon as possible and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container.
If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area. If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray can be used to dilute spills to nonflammable mixtures and flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
For a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire. However, it has significant long-term health hazards and can displace oxygen, reducing the amount available for breathing. NFPA - Flammability: 3 - Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions.
Hexane | C6H14 - PubChem
Physical State: Liquid Melting Point: Hazardous Polymerization: Does not occur. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures e. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices. Hazardous Decomposition Products: None reported. Conditions to Avoid: Heat, open flames, static discharge, sparks and other ignition sources.
Corrosivity to Metals: Not corrosive to steel, cast iron, stainless steel, copper and its alloys, nickel and its alloys and aluminum. Stability and Reactivity Comments: May attack some forms of plastics, rubber and coatings.
Environmental emergency planning: hexane risk evaluation
Eye Irritation: n-Hexane is a mild eye irritant. Application of 0.
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Skin Irritation: n-Hexane is a slight skin irritant. Undiluted n-hexane and isomers amount not specified caused slight irritation to the intact and broken skin of rabbits when applied under cover for 24 hours. Inhalation of very high concentrations or skin absorption has produced signs of central nervous system CNS depression, such as muscle incoordination and reduced consciousness.
Signs of respiratory tract irritation have also been observed following inhalation of high concentrations. Ingestion may result in aspiration of the liquid into the lungs.