Total quality assurance for the food industries 3rd Edition

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The following is a list, a brief explanation, and a simplified example of each.

Quality Management: Important Aspects for the Food Industry

Special charts: Sequential, trend analysis. Flow Chart A picture of a process, using engineering symbols, pictures, or block diagrams, which indicates the main steps of a process Figure Cause and Effect Diagram A pictorial representation of the main inputs to a process, problem or goal, with detailed sub-features attached to each of the main inputs Figure Also referred to as Ishikawa or fishbone diagrams.

Control Chart Variable and Attribute A graph of a process characteristic plotted in sequence, which includes the calculated process mean and statistical control limits Figure Figure Cause and effect diagram. Control chart. Check sheet. Pareto chart. Scatter diagram. Histogram A diagram of the frequency distribution of a set of data observed in a process Figure The data are not plotted in sequence, but are placed in the appropriate cells or intervals to construct a bar chart. Check Sheet Generally in the form of a data sheet, used to display how often specific problems occur Figure Pareto Charts A bar chart illustrating causes of defects, arranged in decreasing order.

Superimposed is a line chart indicating the cumulative percentages of these defects Figure Scatter Diagrams A collection of sets of data which attempt to relate a potential cause X-axis with an effect Y-axis Figure Data are collected in pairs at random. The Quality Department in a food manufacturing company may be the last one to assemble a written system. Therefore, there is no need to further formalize quality procedures.

If You're an Educator

It might be risky to change the existing system. Head in the sand! A formalized system tends to slow things down.

If You're a Student

Absence of a system may bring things to a standstill! These excuses might be applied equally to other departments within a food company accounting, personnel or distribution , but companies generally have rigorous formalized procedures for these departments. The Quality Department has frequently been overlooked in this respect, partly because it is a relatively new discipline. Prior to that time, the Society, the professional organization dedicated to promotion of quality control in industry, had no recommendations specifically for the food industry. Until the s, few colleges or universities offered degrees in statistical quality control.

In fact, few even offered classes in this subject.

As a direct result, quality control was far too often mistakenly considered to be concerned with inspection, sorting, sanitation management, and monitoring the retorting process for low acid canned foods. Quality control in the food industry, under these conditions, quite naturally was regarded as a cost center which contributed to overhead, rather than as a potential profit center which contributed to savings.

From a series of successes at home and abroad in quality control—quality improvement, process improvement, productivity improvement, reduction in cost of scrap, rework, and product giveaway—the reputation of properly organized and operated quality control departments has gradually changed from a "cost generator" to a "profit center. The cost to remedy design failures is minimized when these shortcomings are detected at the concept or prototype stages of development.

The cost to remedy failures rises exponentially at the later stages pilot plant, production run, market distribution. A documented system can assure that geographically separated divisions of a company know how to produce uniform product quality, and are capable of communicating process improvement information between plants. Such a system provides an effective tool for training new employees both within and outside of the quality department. Perhaps most important, a documented quality system can be created to emphasize continuously the twin goals of attainment of uniform quality and profit improvement.

A more detailed discussion of some of the more recent system guidelines follows. It should be emphasized that the seven basic tools of quality should be included in each of these systems. Six-sigma see Chapter 8 is based on counting defects, and using this data to rate quality control.

Efforts to reduce the number of defects are centered around inputs from all levels of employment within the company. Management and employees all train in the statistics involved, the techniques of production inspection and product improvement. It is most effective in hardware industries where defects can be remachined or sorted and scrapped.

For the most part, this industry's standards are self-imposed by the manufacturers or their customers. Because of legal standards and complete unwillingness by consumers to accept any food defects the six-sigma method has little application to the food industry. Critical path diagrams are generally clear flow diagrams which can be understood by production personnel, thus contributing to their effectiveness.

Unlike most hardware industries where some defective product is considered normal though undesirable , in the food industry critical defects are not acceptable, and in many areas not permitted by law. ISO see below is an excellent tool to enforce control of quality. It is effective in the hardware industries.

Food industries may be required to adhere to this standard in order to export their products to many countries which demand ISO certification. TQM, PDAC, and many other pseudonyms are based on detailed standards often legislated which are achieved by the use of statistical quality controls. The principles may not be understood at all levels of employees, but these programs can be highly effective for preventing defects, improving quality and lowering process costs.

A committee of food quality experts, chaired by Sydney Pearce, restructured this standard for use by the food processing industry, and published the guidelines in This document covers the following: 1. Administration includes quality policy, objectives, quality system, planning quality manual, responsibility, reporting, quality cost management, and quality system audits.

Each of these subjects is covered in detail. For example, quality system provides for individual policies, procedures, standards, instructions, etc.

Formats and Editions of Total quality assurance for the food industries [borsuhandlechoff.tk]

Design assurance and design change control contains 12 subsections, such as concept definition, design review, market readiness review. Control of purchased materials—an excellent summary of supplier certification requirements, such as specifications, system requirements, facility inspection, assistance to suppliers.

User contact and field performance includes product objective, advertising, marketing, acceptance surveys, complaints and analysis. Corrective action covers detection, documentation, incorporating change, product recall, and non-conforming disposition. Employee relations—selection, motivation, and training. The Code of Federal Regulations CFR 21 Part , GMP provides excellent definitions and criteria which determine if the product has been manufactured under conditions which make it unfit for food; or if the product has been processed under insanitary conditions resulting in contamination with filth; or is otherwise rendered injurious to health.

It contains detailed requirements for avoiding these possibilities in the following general areas: Personnel—Disease control, cleanliness, education and training, and supervision. Plant and grounds—Proper equipment storage, maintenance of surrounding property, effective systems for waste disposal, space for equipment placement and storage of materials, separation of operations likely to cause contamination, sanitation precautions for outside fermentation vessels, building construction to permit adequate cleaning, adequate lighting, ventilation and screening.

Sanitary operations—Building and Fixtures: maintenance, cleaning and sanitizing to prevent contamination. Special precautions for toxic sanitizing agents. Pest control. Food contact surfaces: sanitation procedures. Sanitary facilities and controls—Water supply, plumbing, sewage disposal, toilet facilities, handwashing facilities, rubbish and offal disposal. The Code then follows with specific GMP regulations for equipment and for process controls.

Equipment and utensils—Design, materials and workmanship shall be cleanable, protected against contamination, and shall be nontoxic, seamless, and properly maintained.

1. Introduction

Some specific types of equipment are referred to: holding, conveying, freezing, instrumentation, controls, and compressed gases. Processes and controls—Adequate sanitation in receiving inspection, transporting, segregating, manufacturing, packaging, and storing. Appropriate quality control operations to insure that food is suitable for human consumption and that packaging materials are safe and suitable. Assigned responsibility for sanitation. Chemical, microbial and extraneous material testing.

Rejection of adulterated or contaminated material. Stored to minimize deterioration. Wash and conveying water to be of adequate sanitary quality. Containers shall be inspected for possible contamination or deterioration of food. Microorganism presence shall not be at a level which might produce food poisoning, and shall be pasteurized during manufacturing to maintain a safe level. Levels of toxins such as aflotoxin , or presence of pest contamination or extraneous material to be in compliance with FDA regulations, guidelines or action levels.


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Storage of raw materials, ingredients or rework shall be protected against contamination, and held at temperature and humidity which will prevent adulteration. Frozen raw materials shall be thawed only as required prior to use and protected from adulteration. Manufacturing, packaging and storage to be controlled for minimum microorganism growth, or contamination.