Structures Subjected to Repeated Loading: Stability and Strength
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The paper describes experimental aspects for composite steel-concrete columns, with steel encased profile. Failure modes were different, characterized by sudden and violent concessions due to cracking developments through aggregate in columns with HSC, while columns with NSC shows a "slow" failure mode characterized by gradual decline of bearing capacity with the growth of the displacements. The solution of fully encased composite column is a competitive solution for seismic and non-seismic zones, due to the excellent.
The results. Due to the. Published byElsevierLtd. Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of SPbUCEMF Keywords: steel-concrete composite column, bearing capacity, monotonic and cyclic loading. Published by Elsevier Ltd. The composite members are used in construction from the necessity of protecting the steel member from fire and corrosion.
The benefits brought to the columns yield and stability by using concrete to encase the steel profile haven't been took account of until the 50's. The tests made by Faber  revealed the fact that using a higher concrete quality the member can be evaluate as a composite member. More recently, with the advent of modern composite frame construction in high rise buildings, engineers developed new methods to take advantage of the stiffening and strengthening effects of concrete and reinforcing bars on the bearing capacity of steel-concrete composite member.
The developments related to high-strength concrete and seismic design motivate the review of composite column behaviour and current design provisions.
Using the composite leading to larger openings, reducing the height levels and provides a better lateral stiffness. Under large-magnitude seismic events, concrete shells crack and lower the flexural stiffness of composite beam-columns.
Nevertheless, the steel core acts as a back-up system in providing the shear strength and the required ductility to prevent brittle failure modes. Eurocode 4  provides a relative simple method to design composite columns. The first two experimental programs used for validation were developed in the Structures Department, at Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, year and The third program was developed at National Central University in , Taiwan.
The experimental program realized by Cristina Campian, , at Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, included 12 tests 3 monotonic and 9 cyclic on fully encased steel-concrete composite columns. All columns had the same cross-section and were grouped according to their length. In table 1 are presented some characteristics of the tested specimens. Cross-section of the tested specimens and failure mode Table 1. Characteristics of tested specimens.
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The failure of all tested columns was governed by the plastic hinge formation at column base see Fig. The test were carried out in Technical University of Cluj Napoca laboratories, and they are focused on the increasing the concrete class effects. Therefore the mechanical behavior and seismic resistance of the 8 specimens of concrete encased composite columns Fig.
Seismic resistance of columns was tested on full-scale specimens subjected to cyclic loading and a constant axial force. The confining hoops have a 0 8 diameter with spacing of mm on the critical zone mm and mm spacing on the rest of the column length, Fig. The specimens were tested combining several parameters as.
The NplRd value was calculated in accordance with the design rules of EC4 Simplified Method except the concrete provisions. The horizontal load is applied on the column at the distance representing the middle height of the story. This load is cyclically applied in positive and negative range of value by two 80 kN actuators placed in the right and in the left side of the free end to simulate the horizontal seismic force on the column Fig.
The column is considered embedded on the base and free of restraints on the other side. This was the start point for furthermore researches in order to be able to make a full comparison and parameters analysis. The lateral displacements were imposed to the column as is shown in Fig 7.
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The levels of the displacement. The stiffness of the columns decreased with increase of the loading cycles. The first cracks in the concrete occurred by the direction of confining hoops. After that the concrete was expelled the longitudinal bars have been revealed. At that stage a big percentage of the bearing capacity of the concrete section was lost, and we could took into account just the concrete section located between the longitudinal bars and the steel shape. The critical moment is achieved when the longitudinal bars are buckling and all the concrete is expelled from the steel profile.
In this stage the loading is carried out only by steel profile. The test usually ends when the member fails under the effect of the compressive force. The failure modes of the columns are shown in Fig. In the present paper, only one series of tests, the one of 3 m length specimens, was fully described.
Based on these results the comparison with columns using normal concrete was made. The results are listed in Tab.
Magazine of Concrete Research
The shape of the F-e curve is quite different. The F-e curve of the columns with HSC linearity was noticed and a more pronounced tilt of the ascending zone caused by the superior stiffness. The descending branch the curve tends to plumb, as it can bee seen in Fig. As it can be seen in the hysteretic diagram in Fig.
Hysteresis loops of the specimen SC subjected to cyclic Fig. Hysteresis loops of the specimen SC subjected to cyclic. The graphics are presented in Fig.
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With areas obtained from the cycles we can calculate the absorbed energy ratios. The values are presented in Tab. The failure mode was similar for all tested specimens. In comparison with the columns made with normal concrete, the failure of the columns made with high strength concrete was violent and brittle.
The experimental study made by H. Hsu, F. Jan and J. All tested columns had the same cross-section, mm x mm, with six different embedded profiles Tab.
The type of loading and direction are presented also in Tab. Cross-section of the tested specimens and failure mode Table 5. Identical reinforcement were used in all specimens, 4 as longitudinal reinforcement and 0 9. The stirrup spacing was mm within the confined zones and mm in the non-confined zones. Yield strength for the structural steel, longitudinal bars and stirrups were MPa, MPa and MPa respectively.
The concrete compressive strength, determined from cylinder tests was 38 MPa. One method to determine the properties and behavior of the steel-concrete composite columns is to evaluate the ECCS recommended parameters. This procedure was developed for steel elements, because of the similarity was adapted for the composite steel-concrete section as well. The referred parameters allow us to study some mechanical characteristics of the composite steel-concrete columns, with embedded steel profile, such as: ductility of the element, load bearing capacity, stiffness of the element or absorbed energy capacity.
All presented parameters are defined as a ratio from the cyclic loading and the monotonic reference test in absence of the monotonic test the elastic limit is determined from first cycle.