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When Ontario was established in , popular winter activities included skating, tobogganing, snowshoeing, dog sledding, skiing and curling. In the summer, there was track and field, swimming, cricket, cycling, rugby and golf. Early sport was localized and provided different forms of leisure activity to people in both the countryside and the city. Leisure time in urban areas revolved around factory hours, while in more rural areas around the farm schedule, which meant that most activities took place on Saturday. Maar hoe mondiaal is de wielersport vandaag de dag eigenlijk? In dit artikel analyseren wij de mondialisering van het wegwielrennen voor mannen.
Rantala, K. A major part of the organized sports in Finland has been done Although the difference of the ideology between the two organizations has been identified, there is a lack of research on the spatial point of view.
Sports, Geography of
Is Finland a homogenous country or not? We used the district-wise membership statistics of these central organizations from to We compared these membership statistics to the population data and to the electoral statistics. A major migration towards cities has affected also organized sport. On some areas where the support of political left was low also TUL had low number of members. On the other hand, in areas with higher amount of manufacturing industry, and thus workers, TUL was stronger than in areas with lower amount of manufacturing. Petteri Muukkonen.
Critical geographies of sport: Space, power, and sport in global perspective. Introduction What do ethnographies tell us about sports geography? A number of academics in sport studies and sport sociology use ethnographic approaches in their research. While research in sports geography is significantly While research in sports geography is significantly underdeveloped in comparison to sports sociology Wise b , geographers can productively extend this work by adapting more ethnographic and field-based approaches designed to capture the importance of place and context.
Research in sports geography has been heavily influenced by the work of John Bale, who highlighted a number of important analytical themes in his book Sports Geography Bale , including landscapes, globalization, diffusion, regional analysis, location, social welfare, place, and geographical imaginaries.
Geographers have increasingly taken up these themes to contribute more critically-informed studies to the sports geography literature.
More recent work has seen scholars looking beyond descriptions of stadia and landscapes to uncover, for example, how sports impact communities Gaffney , shape contested identities Conner , aid new conceptual understanding to space and place Tonts and Atherley , and influence nation-building Koch Contributing to this wider effort to advance a critical approach to sports geography, much of my own research has focused on Haitians in the Dominican Republic DR using an ethnographic approach.
This methodology has allowed me to better understand how sport adds value to everyday life Wise , , reinforces a sense of place and community Wise a; Wise and Harris , and creates social divisions Wise c. Drawing on my previous research experience in the DR, this chapter outlines the value of ethnographic methods and how these might be applied to future sports geography research in Latin America.
More inductive ethnographic research in sports geography is needed. Sport involves experience and takes on multiple local meanings. When I began my fieldwork, I had to first gain an understanding of how wider, existing, and often contested power relations limited control over and access to space s. Examining sport in the small town of Villa Ascension allowed me to develop this understanding locally, but also to situate it within broader ethnicized and racialized geographies of power on the island of Hispaniola. As I argue in this chapter, a local community-centered focus is essential as Latin America is increasingly coming under the shadow of sporting mega-events.
Since investments in sporting mega-events already overshadow local voices, concerns and needs, it is incumbent upon scholars to directly engage with impacted communities to develop a more inclusive picture of the social impacts of mega-event. Based on my previous research with a rural, underprivileged Haitian community in the DR, I propose a re-centering of the scholarship on mega-events around issues of social justice, grounded not just in sensational media reports, but in long-term research to capture the voices of those in underrepresented communities and other places where sports-centered regeneration has occurred.
Sports Geography – Bóksalan
Inductive ethnographic research will be central to future research aimed at investigating and uncovering how communities respond to extensive mega-event developments, as well as the effort to advance a critical sports geography more generally. Sports Geographer BJ Pheasant has calculated the ratios of needed incoming male college freshman soccer players versus the number of 12th grade boys soccer players in each state.
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The ratio shows the number of players from each U18 club The ratio shows the number of players from each U18 club team needed to play in college soccer to fill the incoming freshman class in each state. Sports Geographer BJ Pheasant has calculated the ratios of needed incoming female college freshman soccer players versus the number of 12th grade girls soccer players in each state. Rosso E. Taking the Next Step looks at a particular issue of player development that too often remains under-appreciated: the influence of others.
In particular, it casts light on resources that relationships with others bring about and that have In particular, it casts light on resources that relationships with others bring about and that have the capacity to affect the ability of players to develop into successful, elite athletes. At international levels, sports reflect political, economic, and cultural power of states, where hosts of major international venues have a strong correlation with these three factors.
In sporting events, excitement levels and feeling of team comradely have strong spatial properties.
The feelings of togetherness and belonging are often based on where crowds gather to watch a team and being tightly enclosed in stadiums. Outside of professional or organized sports, the creation of sporting places that are ad hoc or simply done on any open area can have an important influence on community cohesion and socializing. On the other hand, conflict can occur if two nearby communities have different sporting tastes and attempt to use the same social space.
In effect, sports help communities to unite, sometimes making it easier for communities to address social problems as sporting places are an escape, but they are potential sources of conflict if different groups have varying sporting tastes. Geography of sports fans: radio station coverage map for broadcasts of Red Sox and Yankees games. Map: Tim Wallace , For athletes, space is important in their development as players.