Pica in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities
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Almost a third Serum those with pica had a preference for a single was sent to a private laboratory MDS for item, Iron was analysed using the Auto- were nondiscriminating in their preference.
The most frequently consumed items method, and magnesium using the were strings and thread Comparisons were made between the cases and controls on trace metals, age, sex, level of mental retardation, autism, Discussion depression and schizophrenia. Almost a quarter The results in- Huber , who found According to velopmental disabilities living in commu- the odds ratios, an individual with a level of nity settings. Environment may have an mental retardation in the profound range impact on the prevalence of pica depend- had 3.
Par- ing on the structured activities available, ac- ticipants with low serum iron had 5. Such studies will become and Huber, ; McAlpine and Singh, increasingly important as people with ; Tewari et al. A few exotic pica developmental disabilities continue to items were also found, such as Christmas move from institutional to community ornaments and colostomy bags.
Important settings. As found in previous item. These by Lofts et al. Also, the between pica and age, sex, nor with the spe- negative side effects of excessive supplemen- cific psychiatric disorders of autism, depres- tation treatment must be considered.
Pica in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities
Some sion or schizophrenia. Pica was significantly studies have shown that large doses of zinc associated with level of mental retardation. An- tion in the profound range should be on the ecdotal data from the residential facility sup- alert for the presence of this disorder. Previ- port this notion. One case of pica was said ous studies have found pica to be an under- to have resolved after the removal of envi- reported problem that can have serious ronmental stressors, while a second case medical complications Danford and Huber, was resolved following iron supplementa- Pica is a complex disorder that likely Pica among persons with developmen- has multiple aetiologies, and the analysis tal disabilities has been commonly viewed and treatment of this disorder should reflect as simply the result of the intellectual dis- this complexity.
The current study provides ability. These results suggest that trace metal defi- ciencies may play a role in the aetiology of pica among some individuals with develop- Summary mental disabilities. However, more research is needed into the direction of the relation- A survey of residents with pica was con- ship, since causation cannot be implied due ducted in a provincial facility for adults to the design of the study.
It is possible that with developmental disabilities. Of the total the pica itself is causing gastrointestinal population of residents, Almost a third of arily to deficiencies. Another possibility is the residents with pica had a preference for that nutritional deficiencies are induced by a single item. An equal number of residents pica through the replacement of normal without pica was chosen as a comparison food groups with the non-nutritive item group. An analysis of the study population Danford et al.
The clinical and research im- Prasher, V. Worsening of pica as a symptom of depressive plications of the results are discussed. British Journal of Psychiatry, , Acknowledgement Kinnell, H. Pica as a feature of autism. The authors thank Susan Leslie for her Lofts, R. Effects of serum zinc supplementation on pica behavior of persons with mental retardation. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 95, References McAlpine, C.
Pica in institutionalized mentally retarded persons. Ausman, J. Journal of Mental Deficiency Research, 30, Behavior therapy of pica in a profoundly McLoughlin, I. The picas. British Journal retarded adolescent. Mental Retardation, 12, of Hospital Medicine, 37, Tewari, S. Pica: A childhood symptom.
Roy, A. Pica in a learning disability Southampton, England: Camelot Press. The British Journal Bothwell, T. Iron deficiency. Medical of Developmental Disabilities, 41, Journal of Australia, 2, Wakham, M. Pica: a Francis, N. Zinc, copper and peculiar behavior with oral involvement.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine, 11, Chen, X. Low levels of zinc in hair and blood, pica, anorexia and poor growth in Chinese preschool children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 42, Behavior Modification, 30 2 , Stiegler LN.
Developmentally Disabled Adult Wrongful Death: PICA Disorder and Choking
Understanding pica behavior: A review for clinical and educational professionals. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 20 , Functional analysis of problem behavior: A review. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36 2 , — Alternative response training with contingent practice as intervention for pica in a school setting. Behavioral Interventions, 18 , Varying response effort in the treatment of pica maintained by automatic reinforcement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 35 3 , Response blocking with and without redirection for the treatment of pica. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34 4 , Pica: Common but commonly missed.
Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 13 5 , Multicomponent assessment and treatment of cigarette pica. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32 3 , A descriptive study of pica behavior in persons with mental retardation. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 11 , A preliminary evaluation of empirically derived consequences for the treatment of pica. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27 3 , Toward a functional analysis of self-injury. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27 2 , Reprinted with permission from Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 2, , American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 90 5 , Pica among mentally retarded adults.