Families in Asia: Home and Kin
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Grammatical relations are typically signalled by word order, particles and coverbs or adpositions. Modality is expressed using sentence-final particles. The usual word order in MSEA languages is subject—verb—object. Chinese and Karen are thought to have changed to this order from the subject—object—verb order retained by most other Sino-Tibetan languages. The order of constituents within a noun phrase varies: noun—modifier order is usual in Tai languages, Vietnamese and Miao, while in Chinese varieties and Yao most modifiers are placed before the noun.
Languages of both eastern and southeast Asia typically have well-developed systems of numeral classifiers. Bengali also lacks gender , unlike most Indo-European languages. Bengali especially the eastern variety is more phonologically similar to southeastern and eastern languages than those further away from the region, with alveolar consonants replacing the retroflex consonants characteristic of other Indo-Aryan languages. Some dialects bordering southeast Asia such as Chittagonian have even developed phonemic tone.
The other areas of the world where numerical classifier systems are common in indigenous languages are the western parts of North and South America, so that numerical classifiers could even be seen as a pan- Pacific Rim areal feature. For most of the pre-modern period, Chinese culture dominated East Asia.
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Scholars in Vietnam, Korea and Japan wrote in Literary Chinese and were thoroughly familiar with the Chinese classics. Their languages absorbed large numbers of Chinese words, known collectively as Sino-Xenic vocabulary, i. These words were written with Chinese characters and pronounced in a local approximation of Middle Chinese.
Today, these words of Chinese origin may be written in the traditional Chinese characters Chinese, Japanese, and Korean , simplified Chinese characters Chinese, Japanese , a locally developed phonetic script Korean hangul , Japanese kana , or a Latin alphabet Vietnamese. In a similar way to the use of Latin and ancient Greek roots in English, the morphemes of Classical Chinese have been used extensively in all these languages to coin compound words for new concepts.
They have even been accepted into Chinese, a language usually resistant to loanwords, because their foreign origin was hidden by their written form. In topic—comment constructions , sentences are frequently structured with a topic as the first segment and a comment as the second. This way of marking previously mentioned vs. The Topic—comment sentence structure is a legacy of Classical Chinese influence on the grammar of modern East Asian languages. In Classical Chinese, the focus of the phrase i.
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Linguistic systems of politeness , including frequent use of honorific titles , with varying levels of politeness or respect, are well-developed in Japanese and Korean. Politeness systems in Chinese are relatively weak, having simplified from a more developed system into a much less predominant role in modern Chinese.
However, Vietnamese has retained a highly complex system of pronouns, in which the terms mostly derive from Chinese. Thus personal pronouns are open class words rather than closed class words : they are not stable over time, not few in number, and not clitics whose use is obligatory in grammatical constructs. In addition to Korean honorifics that indicate politeness toward the subject of the speech, Korean speech levels indicate a level of politeness and familiarity directed toward the audience. With modernization and other trends, politeness language is evolving to be simpler.
Avoiding the need for complex polite language can also motivate use in some situations of languages like Indonesian or English that have less complex respect systems. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: Classification schemes for Southeast Asian languages. Main article: Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area. Main articles: Adoption of Chinese literary culture and Sino-Xenic vocabularies. Topic: today's dinner; Comment: I've already eaten.
Topic: today's dinner; Comment: already eaten. Topic: today's dinner; Comment: already eaten this. Transcription: Oneur ui jeonyeokbab eun beolsseo meogeotda. Transcription: Geumir ui mansig eun gii siksahayeotda. Main article: Honorifics linguistics. Enfield, N. As a result, 41 percent of babies are now born out of wedlock, a fourfold increase since For everybody else, maternity is often decoupled from matrimony: 40 percent of women with some college but no degree, and 57 percent of women with high school diplomas or less, are unmarried when they give birth to their first child.
The rise of the cohabiting couple is another striking feature of the evolving American family: From to , the number jumped almost percent, to 7.
Nor are unmarried mothers typically in their teens; contrary to all the talk of an epidemic of teenage motherhood, the birthrate among adolescent girls has dropped by nearly half since and last year hit an all-time low, a public health triumph that experts attribute to better sex education and birth-control methods. Most unmarried mothers today, demographers say, are in their 20s and early 30s. The facts have voted, the issue is settled, and Paycheck Mommy is now a central organizing principle of the modern American family.
The share of mothers employed full or part time has quadrupled since the s and today accounts for nearly three-quarters of women with children at home. Cultural attitudes are adapting accordingly. Sixty-two percent of the public, and 72 percent of adults under 30, view the ideal marriage as one in which husband and wife both work and share child care and household duties; back when Jimmy Carter was president, less than half of the population approved of the dual-income family, and less than half of 1 percent of husbands knew how to operate a sponge mop.
Mothers are bringing home more of the bacon, and of the mortarboards, too. While most couples are an even match scholastically, 28 percent of married women are better educated than their mates; that is true of just 19 percent of married men. Forty years ago, the asymmetry went the other way. One change that caught many family researchers by surprise was the recent dip in the divorce rate. After many decades of upward march, followed by a long, stubborn stay at the familiar 50 percent mark that made every nuptial feel like a coin flip, the rate began falling in and is now just above 40 percent for first-time marriages.
The decline has been even more striking among middle- and upper-middle-income couples with college degrees. For them, fewer than one in three marriages is expected to end in divorce, a degree of stability that allows elite couples to merge their resources with confidence, maximally invest in their children and otherwise widen the gap between themselves and the struggling masses.
Families In Asia: Home And Kin
There are exceptions, of course. Among baby boomers, the rate of marriage failure has surged 50 percent in the past 20 years — perhaps out of an irritable nostalgia, researchers said, for the days of free love, better love, anything but this love. Nor do divorce rates appear to have fallen among those who take the old Samuel Johnson quip as a prescription, allowing hope to triumph over experience, and marrying again and again.
For both Mike and Kristi Burns, now in their 40s, the first marriage came young and left early, and the second stuck around for more than a dozen years. Kristi was 19, living in South Carolina, and her Marine boyfriend was about to be shipped to Japan. In Japan, Kristi gave birth to her son Brandon, realized she was lonely and miserable, and left the marriage seven weeks after their first anniversary. Back in the States, Kristi studied to be a travel agent, moved to Michigan and married her second husband at age He was an electrician.
He adopted Brandon, and the couple had a son, Griffin. The marriage lasted 13 years. After the divorce, friends persuaded her to try the online dating service match. They started chatting. He met his second wife through mutual friends, they had a big church wedding, started a software publishing company together, sold it and had two children, Brianna and Alec. When the marriage started going downhill, Mike ignored signs of trouble, like the comments from neighbors who noticed his wife was never around on weekends.
After 15 years of marriage, his wife did it for him, and kicked him out of the house. The kids are still adjusting to one another. Sometimes Kristi, a homemaker, feels jealous of how much attention her husband showers on his daughter Brianna, Sometimes Mike retreats into his computer. Yet they are determined to stay together. In America, family is at once about home and the next great frontier. The Baby Boom for Gay Parents. A growing number of same-sex couples are pursuing parenthood any way they can.
One parent is the breadwinner, a corporate lawyer who is Type A when it comes to schoolwork, bedtime and the importance of rules. Both parents know when rules and roles are made for subverting. Wayser glanced at Richard Schulte, 61, his homemaker-artist husband, who was sitting nearby. Wayser, Mr. Schulte and their six adopted children are part of one of the more emphatic reinventions of the standard family flow chart. A growing number of gay men and lesbians are pursuing parenthood any way they can: adoption, surrogacy, donor sperm. Wayser said. Some critics have expressed concern that the children of gay parents may suffer from social stigma and the lack of conventional adult role models, or that same-sex couples are not suited to the monotonous rigors of family life.
Earlier studies, often invoked in the culture wars over same-sex marriage, suggested that children who lived with gay parents were prone to lower grades, conduct disorders and a heightened risk of drug and alcohol problems. But new research suggests that such fears are misplaced. Through a preliminary analysis of census data and other sources, Michael J. Rosenfeld of Stanford University has found that whatever problems their children may display are more likely to stem from other factors, like the rupture of the heterosexual marriage that produced the children in the first place.
Once these factors are taken into account, said Dr. And two-father couples, in defiance of stereotype, turn out to be exemplars of domesticity. According to the Williams Institute at the University of California, Los Angeles, the number of gay couples with children has doubled in the past decade, and today well over , same-sex couples are raising children.